Chickasaw Nation

Chickasaw Nation: Important Places

Many towns in the Chickasaw Nation are rich in historic interest. Purcell, Wayne, Pauls Valley, Davis, Ardmore, and Marietta on the Santa Fe Railway; Silver City, Duncan, and Fleetwood on the Chisholm Trail; Roff and Stonewall in the northeast, Ryan and Grady in the southwest, and Hennepin on Wild Horse Creek - each has a distinctive story. Bloomfiled Academy, Wapanucka Academy, Burney Institute, and the Chickasaw National Academy; Colbert, near a well-known crossing of Red River; and Tishomingo, the Chickasaw capital, have all been important at some stage of Chickasaw development.

The Chickasaws established their capital at Good Spring on lower Pennington Creek when they were separated from the Choctaws in 1856. The place was given a new name, Tishomingo City, in honor of a famous tribal chief. Several stores, a cotton gin, a water mill, and a newspaper, the Chickasaw and Choctaw Herald, were established in the place. The capitol, erected in 1853, was replaced in 1896 by a building which has been in use since that time. The Chickasaw Manual Labor School for boys was opened near Good Sprint (Tishomingo) in 1851.

Wapanucka Academy for girls was opened in 1852; Blooomfield Academy for girls, in 1852, Collins Institute (Colbert Institute), in 1854; and Burney Institute for girls, in 1859.

Captain Randolph B. Marcy removed Camp Arbuckle from its original location southeast of Purcell on the Canadian River and established Fort Arbuckle on Wild Horse Creek, west of Davis, in 1851. The ruins of chimneys and the walks between barracks are still to be seen on the site of Fort Arbuckle. Initial Point, the point of orgin for the Oklahoma survey of ranges, townships, and sections, is approximately one mile south of the fort.

Purcell, Pauls Valley, and Ardmore became important shipping centers on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway and the Gulf, Colorado and Santa Fe (south of Purcell) after the building of the road through Oklahoma and Indian Territory, 1886-90.

Ben Colbert's ferry in the Chickasaw Nation was an important point on the Texas Road and on the East and West Shawnee cattle trails. The M. K. and T. railroad, entering the Indian Territory in 1870, crossed Cherokee, Creek, and Choctaw lands before entering the Chickasaw Nation. It reached Colbert's Ferry in January, 1873.

Choctaw Nation

Choctaw Nation: Important Places

Beginning with the Treaty of Doak's Stand in 1820, the Choctaw Nation held land in the West that was recognized by the United States as their own; and after 1825, the Choctaw Nation was separate from Arkansas Territory. As western agent, Major William McClellan took steps in 1827 toward the construction of agency buildings at Skullyville, and within two years about 150 Choctaw Indians had moved to the district on the Arkansas River. With the general removal from Mississippi after the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek in 1830, towns in the new Choctaw Nation developed rapidly.

Near Tuskahoma, which became the capital in 1834, a new council house was built, which was called Nanih Waiya, the name of the Choctaw sacred mound in Mississippi. Boggy Depot, on the Clear Boggy River near the western border of Pushmataha District, became a trade center of some importance.

At various times Boggy Depot served as the national capital, and, in addition to Skullyville and Tuskahoma, other towns were used as the seat of the government. Before the Civil War the Council had designated Fort Towson and Doaksville as the capital for brief periods; and in 1862 a constitutional amendment moved the capital to Armstrong Academy, which received the name Chahta Tamaha.

Doaksville became the largest town in the Choctaw Nation and, before the end of its prosperous era, the principal trade center of the entire Indian Territory. The United States had established a post office at Miller's Court House, which had been designated as a county seat in Arkansas Territory about a year before the boundary line of 1825 revealed that it was west of the territorial border. A post office was established at Doaksville in 1832, Skullywille, 1834, Perryville, 1841, and Boggy Depot, 1849.

Atoka, where the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railway line crossed the old Butterfield Stage route, became one of the important trade centers of the Pushmataha District. Wheelock Mission, its stone church dating back to 1846, the oldest church building in Oklahoma, is one of the many places of historical significance in the Choctaw Nation.

Little River, with its principal tributary, Mountain Fork, is notable for its scenic beauty. The Kiamichi and Poteau rivers with their branches are also attractive examples of mountain streams surrounded by timbered hills.

Trial of Tears Routes

Indian Territory 1836 - 1856

Indian Territory 1856 - 1866

Indian Territory 1875

Oklahoma (Indian Territory) Township and Range Map

The lower one-quarter shows the BASE LINE which runs east/west. Properties above (north) of the BASE LINE are designated TOWNSHIP NORTH. Those properties located below (south) of the BASE LINE are designated TOWNSHIP SOUTH.

INDIAN MERIDIAN divides the state in half, it runs north/south. Properties to the left (west) are designated RANGE WEST, and properties to the right (east) are designed RANGE EAST

The INITIAL POINT is where the BASE LINE and the INDIAN MERIDIAN intersect. All property descriptions are referenced from this starting point. Property descriptions will contain a township and range designation. To locate the legal land description for your Freedmen ancestor, see the Hasting List Index which is contained on this website.

Oklahoma State/County Map

Copyright © 2000 - 2011 Desalyn M. Stevenson.  All Rights Reserved